Location: Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador.|
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 S, 76 00 W
total: 1,285,220 sq km (496,225 sq. miles)
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area - comparative: slightly smaller than Alaska.
Land boundaries: total: 5,536 km
Bolivia 900 km
Brazil 1,560 km
Chile 160 km
Colombia 1,496 km (est.)
Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline: 2,414 km with a 200-mile maritime dominion
Seasons for Peru:
Summer: December 22nd. to March 21st.
Autumn: March 22nd. to June 21st.
Winter: June 22nd. to September 22nd.
Spring: September 23rd. to December 21st.
Coastal area, arid and mild. Andean region, temperate to frigid. Eastern lowlands, tropically warm and humid.
Population: 27,483,864 (July 2001 est.)
0-14 years: 34.41% (male 4,803,464; female 4,654,890)
15-64 years: 60.8% (male 8,408,210; female 8,302,943)
65 years and over: 4.79% (male 603,309; female 711,048) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.7% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 23.9 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 5.78 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population:70.3 years
male: 67.9 years
female: 72.81 years (2001 est.)
Mestizo (mixed Amerindian and White) 37%
Black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions: Roman Catholic 90%
Languages: Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara
conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type: constitutional republic
Independence: 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution: 31 December 1993
Legal system: based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Flag description: three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a llama, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath.
Economy - overview: The Peruvian economy has become increasingly market-oriented, with major privatizations completed since 1990 in the mining, electricity, and telecommunications industries. Thanks to strong foreign investment and the cooperation between the FUJIMORI government and the IMF and World Bank, growth was strong in 1994-97 and inflation was brought under control. In 1998, El Nino's impact on agriculture, the financial crisis in Asia, and instability in Brazilian markets undercut growth. And 1999 was another lean year for Peru, with the aftermath of El Nino and the Asian financial crisis working its way through the economy. Political instability resulting from the presidential election and FUJIMORI's subsequent departure from office limited economic growth in 2000.
GDP: purchasing power parity - $123 billion (2000 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2000 est.)
GDP - per capita: purchasing power parity - $4,550 (2000 est.)
GDP - composition by sector: agriculture: 15% industry: 42% services: 43% (1999)
Currency: nuevo sol
Exchange rates: nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.5230 (January 2001), 3.4900 (2000), 3.383 (1999), 2.930 (1998), 2.664 (1997), 2.453 (1996)
Railways: total: 1,988 km standard gauge: 1,608 km 1.435-m gauge narrow gauge: 380 km 0.914-m gauge
Highways: total: 72,900 km paved: 8,700 km unpaved: 64,200 km (1999 est.)
Waterways: 8,808 km note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca
Ports and harbors: Callao, Chimbote, Ilo, Matarani, Paita, Puerto Maldonado, Salaverry, San Martin, Talara, Iquitos, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas
note: Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are all on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
Airports: 233 (2000 est.)
Airports - with paved runways: total: 46
Airports - with unpaved runways: total: 187